Instructions Below you will find (1) a list of 10 concepts from the…

Question Answered step-by-step Instructions Below you will find (1) a list of 10 concepts from the… Instructions Below you will find (1) a list of 10 concepts from the first half of the course, and (2) a story. Choose any 4 of the concepts on the list and find any and all the examples of each of them in the story. For each of the 4 concepts chosen,  a paragraph which shows precisely and in detail how the concept is exemplified in the story.  List of 10 Concepts Demonic evilInstrumental evil 1 (radical evil)Instrumental evil 2 (the necessary evil)Idealistic evilBanal evilObedience to authority overriding affective empathy and conscience (Milgram)Functional divisions of labour and how they invite moral thoughtlessness (Bauman)Moral heroism as resistance to situational forces arising from evil systems (Zimbardo)The Polus-Callicles standpoint on justice versus injustice (Plato)The Socrates-Plato standpoint on justice versus injustice (Plato) Story Company X was a chemical manufacturing company in the business of producing printer ink. It was extremely successful, on account of the very low price at which it was able to sell its product. Other companies in the same business simply could not compete, and people wondered how Company X could sell its product for so cheap while at the same time not only covering its production costs but also turning a huge profit. In press releases, the executives at Company X would always draw attention to the overall good resulting from its operation: a quality good was being made available to a large group of people on account of its low purchase price, thereby also ensuring the growth of the company and the jobs of its employees. What was not generally known was that Company X was able to drastically lower its prices by eliminating significant production costs related to the management of increasing amounts of chemical waste resulting from the manufacturing process. It did this by secretly dumping containers of the waste into a river running next to Company X’s factory. This river supplied several towns with their drinking water, and so, not surprisingly, many people in those towns started becoming seriously ill. Several of them died. Clem, Sam, Jo, and Sal were four employees at the plant who were directed by the executives to convey sealed containers of liquid to the river and drop them in it. Clem was curious about the contents of the containers, and asked Sam, Jo, and Sal if they should try to find out what they contained. Sam was interested in doing so, but Sal did not care to know, saying that it was above their paygrade and none of their business. Clem, Sam, and Jo, however, decided to approach two executives, Chris and Mel, to ask them about the containers. Chris and Mel revealed to Clem, Sam, and Jo that the containers were full of toxic waste by-products of the manufacturing process at Company X. Sal asked if dumping them in the river was a safe thing to do, and Chris and Mel said that the containers seemed sturdy enough and so would likely not break. Clem and Sam thought to themselves that Chris and Mel might be wrong on this point, but Jo thought that the two executives must know what they are talking about. When Chris and Mel realized that Clem and Sam remained unconvinced by their claims about the sturdiness of their containers, they each offered a reason for why the workers shouldn’t worry about the containers. Chris said: “Listen, even if the containers aren’t that sturdy and break, and someone gets sick by drinking the water, you have to keep the big picture in mind here, and understand that our company supplies scores of people with a product that they would otherwise not be able to afford, not to mention all the jobs the company creates. We are benefitting the majority, and this outweighs the damage caused by the manufacturing operations of Company X.” Mel said: “Also, think about how well paid you all are for the job we have given you. And Chris and I are authorized to double your wages! We are all making a lot of money here, so ask yourselves whether or not it makes sense for you to cause any trouble with this.” Finally, both Chris and Mel reminded Clem, Sam, and Jo who the bosses were and who the employees were, and directed them to continue doing as they were told. When they were alone, Clem, Sam, and Jo discussed the situation. Jo said: “Look, while dumping the containers into the river doesn’t seem right to me if they are not sturdy, and I would feel awful if the containers broke and harmed someone, Chris and Mel are the bosses, and so we have no choice. We have to do what they are telling us to do. If anything bad happens, it’s not our fault at all. Chris, Mel, and the other executives are the ones responsible.” Sam added: “Plus, we all have families to feed and bills to pay. How are we going to do that if we lose our jobs. I’m pretty sure that dumping the containers in the river is wrong and dangerous, but we all live upstream, so there is no danger to us or our families, and we need the money.” Clem said: “Wait a minute, here. We are talking about actions that may very well be causing serious, totally preventable harm to people. If we voluntarily participate in that, we are responsible for that harm, too. I haven’t been paying attention to the news, and so I don’t know if what we are involved in has actually harmed anybody, but I’m going to look into it.” Sam’s response to Clem: “You are inviting misery into your own life by doing that. How will looking into the matter benefit you? Do you think the execs at Company X will just stand by and let you destroy their operation? No, they will destroy you.” Clem’s response to Sam’s response: “Maybe they’ll try, but this is about more than whatever harm they might threaten me with. Participating in this evil would be way more harmful to me – it would ruin my soul, and my spiritual health and wellbeing is far more important to me than any ‘rewards’ I might enjoy by going along with the company.” Meanwhile, Chris and Mel had a telephone meeting with three other executives, Vic, Gil, and Fran, about the conversation they had with Clem, Sam, and Jo. Vic and Gil agreed that Chris and Mel handled the situation well, and were relieved that the manufacturing operation would not have to be put on hold, but for different reasons. Vic was a long-standing member of a local doomsday cult who believed that reducing the numbers of non-cultists was always a good thing, and Vic knew that the towns downstream from the cult were full of people who were actively opposed to the cult. So, Vic thought, it wouldn’t be bad at all – in fact it would be a good thing – if those people were made seriously ill by the chemical waste produced by Company X’s manufacturing practices. Gil was aware of Vic’s membership in a doomsday cult, and found it amusing but misguided. It was absurd, Gil thought, for Vic to believe that poising people could be a good thing. Of course, it was immoral, Gil believed, and anyone truly committed to evil itself – like Gil was – would participate in it solely because it was immoral. Gil’s view was that only fools have to believe what they are doing is good rather than evil before doing it! According to Gil, a true devotee of evil fully and completely embraces evil for what it is! And Gil was a true devotee of evil, and so was on board with the dumping. Chris and Mel both thought that Vic and Gil were deeply disturbed individuals, but didn’t care, since Vic and Gil were okay with the dumping, which put a lot of money in the pockets of the execs at Company X. Fran, however, was an executive who was unaware of the chemical dumping until the telephone meeting, and found the practice deeply upsetting. While Fran knew that putting a stop to it by notifying the authorities might mean no longer having a job, Fran decided that this might nevertheless be morally required. The next day, Fran would begin looking into the matter. A few days later, Clem and Fran happened to enter the local police station at the same time, to expose the dumping practices of Company X, having discovered through their separate investigations that people were indeed getting sick and dying in the towns downstream from the dumping site. They each reasonably inferred that the dumping might be causing the illnesses, and thought it was their moral duty to put a stop to it any way they could. They joined forces and together told the police everything they knew. They understood that it would more than likely mean that they would lose their jobs, but better their jobs, they both thought, than their souls  Social Science Psychology SOCI 3005 Share QuestionEmailCopy link Comments (0)

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